How Carnations Became the Official Mother’s Day Flower

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Northern Pacific Railway Mother’s Day Greeting Card circa 1915

They say there are no words to describe a mother’s love for her child. But the case may be different when it comes to a child’s love for her mom. One woman went so far as to dedicate her entire life to honoring her mother’s legacy. She was the founder of Mother’s Day and her name was Anna Jarvis.

Anna Jarvis

Anna Jarvis was born in 1864 in Grafton, West Virginia. When her mother died in 1905, she made a solemn vow while standing over the gravesite. On that day, she pledged to devote her life to establishing a nationally recognized day to honor mothers for the positive contributions they made to society.

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Anna Jarvis

Ann Reeves Jarvis and the Mother’s Day Work Clubs

Anna’s mother, Ann Reeves Jarvis, had sacrificed a lot for her children. She had raised her family during the Civil War period and had suffered frequent hardship and loss. Of the 11 children she gave birth to, only four survived. The others died from diseases common at the time, including measles, typhoid fever and diphtheria.

In the late 1850’s, in the hopes of improving sanitary conditions to combat such devastating illnesses, Jarvis created the Mother’s Day Work Clubs.

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Ann Reeves Jarvis

The Mother’s Day Work Clubs were a series of coalitions of mothers located in small towns across West Virginia. The clubs raised money for medicines, placed women helpers with families whose mothers were bedridden and inspected food and bottled milk intended for children. The clubs provided much-needed strength and support to area communities that had been devastated by loss.

During the Civil War, Jarvis refused to take sides and urged her Mothers’ Day Work Club members to stay neutral. In their supplemental role as volunteer nurses, the Club’s mothers cared for wounded soldiers of both the Confederate and Union armies, providing food and clothing to the many men who were stationed in the area.

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U.S. Army Center of Military History

Following the war, the Clubs continued to be a unifying force in a divided nation. In 1868, Jarvis organized Mothers’ Friendship Day, which was centered around picnics and other pacifist activities. The events brought together mothers of former foes and encouraged reconciliation among area families.

Anna Jarvis and the white carnation

Shortly after her mother’s death, Anna organized a memorial to honor her. She held it at her mother’s church, St. Andrew’s Methodist Episcopal Church in Grafton, West Virginia. During the service, she passed out 500 white carnations (her mother’s favorite flower) to all the mothers in attendance. Similar events took place later in the afternoon in Philadelphia, where Anna lived at the time.

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With this unofficial inauguration of the Mothers’ Day movement, Anna began an intense letter writing campaign, reaching out to every state governor and national or local figure she judged to be important. By 1909, largely as a result of her campaign, 46 states and many foreign countries, including Canada and Mexico, had begun holding Mother’s Day celebrations. In 1912, Anna formed the Mother’s Day International Association to encourage further international recognition of the day.

Finally in 1914, President Woodrow Wilson made things official. He signed Proclamation 1268, which created a national Mother’s Day “as a public expression of love and reverence for the mothers of our country.” The second Sunday in May was set aside as the official day of celebration and the wearing of a white carnation, symbol of love and good luck, became a tradition.

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Proclamation 1268 establishing an official Mother’s Day

The controversy over printed cards

Anna Jarvis’ original vision was for Mother’s Day to be a personal celebration between mothers and their families (this is why Mother’s takes the singular possessive and not the plural). She imagined it as a time when millions would visit their mothers and pen personal, hand written notes expressing their love and affection.

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With the official recognition of the holiday, though, florists, card companies and other merchants began jumping on the bandwagon. Jarvis became more and more incensed as she watched Mother’s Day drift further and further away from her original idea. And, nothing upset her more than the growth in popularity of the printed Mother’s Day card. She wrote,

A printed card means nothing except that you are too lazy to write to the woman who has done more for you than anyone in the world. 

By 1920, Jarvis had become so upset over the commercialization of Mother’s Day that she launched a campaign to abolish the holiday. Declaring Mother’s Day a failure, she organized boycotts and threatened lawsuits to stop what she saw as an attempt by others to profit off of the day.

In 1923, she filed suit against the then Governor of New York, Al Smith, over a Mother’s Day celebration. When the court rejected her plea, she formed a protest and was arrested for disturbing the peace. She devoted the remainder of her life to fighting against the very day she had established.

Jarvis died, childless, in 1948 at the age of 84. She was buried next to her mother in Philadelphia.

 

Carnations

One hundred years later, Jarvis’ legacy lives on and carnations have become the official Mother’s Day flower.  In Jarvis’ day the carnations were white, but since then pink and red carnations have been added to the mix. According to FTD’s Mother’s Day Flower Guide, pink carnations represent love and gratitude while red carnations signify admiration. Nowadays, white carnations are reserved for honoring a mother who is no longer living.

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Despite Jarvis’ later efforts, every U.S. president since 1914 has issued an official Presidential Mother’s Day Proclamation recognizing and honoring America’s mothers. And today, the custom is celebrated all over the world (albeit on different days.)

On a personal note, I like receiving printed cards and flowers on Mother’s Day, but have to agree with Jarvis that nothing beats a hand-written note from your child. I’m lucky enough to receive such letters each and every year.

Wishing all of you a very happy Mother’s Day!

 

Lily of the Valley: The Official May Day Flower

The bells of lily of the valley

It was the beginning of May and I can still recall the sound of running footsteps on the stairs of my apartment building. Opening the door, I discovered a basket of tiny white flowers on my doorstep. This was Paris in the 1980s, and I had just received my first brin de muguet. The sweet-smelling blooms were none other than lily of the valley; a flower exchanged each year in France on the first of May. Continue reading

Valentines Day Begins at the Dutch Flower Auctions

Flower staging at Aalsmeer FloraHolland in Amsterdam

Today is Valentines Day, the annual festival of romantic love when many of us will be sending flowers. And even though we’ll be buying them locally, most of the blooms will have only just arrived from abroad. Ever wonder how flowers cut fresh in Europe, Africa and Israel can wind up for sale in America the very next day? The answer lies in the wonders of the Dutch Flower Auction.

A TRADING PLATFORM BUILT FOR SPEED

Over the past century, the Dutch have perfected a trading platform that can rapidly move millions of cut flowers around the world, making what until recently seemed impossible – delivery to North America within 24-hours from overseas.
How have they done this? By creating supply chains built for speed (to accommodate flowers’ perishability) and by establishing central distribution points for trade. The Dutch flower auction eliminates the middleman so buyers and sellers can deal directly.

shutterstock_240912793The story begins with the arrival each day of millions of flowers to FloraHolland, a superpower in the floricultural world. The company runs six auction houses throughout the Netherlands and accounts for 90 percent of the Dutch floral trade. According to the latest statistics, in 2015 the Netherlands ranked first in the world in total flower bouquet exports by country, accounting for roughly 40 % of total flower bouquet exports worldwide.

With daily sales of well over 20 million plants and flowers, FloraHolland’s auction houses together comprise the largest flower auction in the world. In addition to the Netherlands (which is itself a major producer of cut flowers), more than 10 countries, including Europe, Ecuador, Colombia, Israel, Ethiopia and Kenya all use the Dutch auction as a gateway to distributing their plants and flowers to other parts of the world.

HOW THEY DO IT

When your business is moving millions of cut flowers daily, keeping the product fresh is the primary concern. To meet the challenge, the Dutch have created lightening-fast logistics. The whole process begins with a collaborative effort undertaken by Amsterdam’s Schiphol Airport, ground shipping companies and the Dutch government.

Workers moving flowers on trolleys at Aalsmeer Auction

Workers loading trolleys at Aalsmeer Auction House

Nicknamed Hub Ways, the approach works to improve traffic flow both to and from the airport and between the six FloraHolland auction sites. It’s a serious business. When deemed necessary, Hub Ways has even gone so far as to widen country roads just to make the flowers’ delivery more efficient.

The largest and most famous of the six Dutch flower auctions is the Aalsmeer Flower Auction. Often referred to as ‘the New York Stock Exchange for Flowers’ it occupies a massive building measuring an astonishing 10.6 million square feet (243 acres, or roughly two football fields). It is the largest flower trade center in the world.

Photo credit: www.hollandfoto.net / Shutterstock, Inc.

On a busy day, the Aalsmeer Flower Auction Hall sells millions of cut flowers to around 2,800 wholesalers and exporters. The buyers arrive at 6 am (midnight EDT) in the morning to bid.

RACING AGAINST THE CLOCK

While the supply chain makes sure the flowers arrive quickly, the Dutch Auction Method speeds the transactions at the points of sale. To accommodate their products’ perishability, Dutch flower auctions run on a system that is the flip side of traditional auctions (in which bidders push prices up from below.)  Also known as clock auctions, the unusual format is designed to ensure the highest transaction speed.

FloraHolland auction room, FloraHolland.com

FloraHolland auction room, FloraHolland.com

These days there is no longer an actual clock, but instead a digital circle operated individually by an auctioneer.  Buyers connect to the clock of their choice by means of a headset. All bidding is done electronically.

Dutch auction clock/ Click here to see how it works

The auction begins with the auctioneer setting a high price on the ‘clock.’ The price is then rapidly lowered by increments as indicated by a moving red dot on the circle. The first buyer to press the button and stop the clock is the highest bidder. The whole process can take under five seconds.

Flowers ready for auction

Adrienne Lansbergen, spokeswoman for Bloemenveiling Aalsmeeran, describes the process this way:

“It is really stressful. If you wait too long, as the flowers are passing by, they may be bought by your competitor. If you push the button too quickly, you may pay too high a price.”

Clearly speed is the king of the auction.

Once the transactions are made, the flowers are electronically labeled and placed in buckets, then hurried away on electric carts to the distribution center. Here, employees in mini electric trucks pull the buckets of flowers from the rail and redistribute them to new trolleys. Then the flowers proceed onwards to their new owners’ processing areas.

Flowers heading to the distribution hall at Aalsmeer

Depending on the species and where they are going, the flowers are assigned different packaging to keep them fresh as they travel.  This may include insulated cardboard boxes (designed for durability), ice packs to provide cooling, and/or flower mats, which absorb humidity and prevent mildew growth. Finally, the flowers are sped by truck back to Schiphol airport, where they are quickly loaded back onto planes for delivery overnight.

FloraHolland estimates that around Valentines Day, they trade over 300 million flowers. Of these, roses, tulips and chrysanthemums are the three top selling blooms. Nowadays, most of the roses come from Kenya. Such a long race to get here — something  to think about when placing your Valentine’s Day blooms in the vase this year.

 

Ten Really Great (Almost) Black Flowers To Plant In Your Garden

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Black bat flower

In painting, black is the darkest hue, achieved by bringing any color to its darkest value. Black gives structure to a composition, creating the illusion of depth by drawing the eye. And in the garden, black (or almost black) flowers perform the same function, placing other colors in dramatic contrast while adding volume to the composition. I’m already planning gardens for my clients for next spring. And, included in many are a whole host of these elegant, almost-black plants and flowers. Continue reading

How to Keep Your Potted Plants In Shape All Summer

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Most of us who grow flowers in pots during the summer know it can be a constant battle to keep things looking their best. We feed and water our plants diligently, yet in no time the flowers stop blooming and the stems become long and leggy. As a garden designer, I find that how to care for plants in containers is one of the most frequent questions I am asked. So, what can we do to keep our potted plants in shape all summer? Continue reading

NYC’s Flower District: Green Oasis In A Concrete Jungle

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It’s not every day you visit a city and wind up in a jungle. But that’s exactly the case if you happen to be walking along a certain stretch of New York City’s West 28th street in Manhattan. There, amidst the hustle and bustle of big city life, a vibrant community of plant wholesalers and retailers set up shop each morning, transforming the city’s teeming sidewalks into a bona fide urban jungle. Continue reading

In the Gardens of Chenonceau, A Floral Legacy Lives On

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Floral arrangement in grand foyer at Chenonceau

In my view, a visit to Chenonceau in France’s Loire Valley is never complete without a tour of its gardens, and as an extension, the many sumptuous floral arrangements that decorate the rooms of this magnificent castle. The two go hand-in-hand, since the one produces tens of thousands of flowers for the other. It’s all part of a time-worn tradition that began centuries ago with the rivalry of two ladies. Continue reading

7 Edible Flowers You Can Grow In Your Garden

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Edible flowers have been used for centuries in cooking and as garnishes and not so long ago, a handful of violets tossed into a salad was not an unheard-of occurrence. My first experience with eating flowers was in California in the 80’s when I sampled said violets, tentatively rolling the petals around my tongue to try to isolate the delicate floral flavor. Continue reading

The Upside Down Flower World of Artist Rebecca Louise Law

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St. Christopher’s installation by Rebecca Louise Law/Photo: stchristophersplace.com

Last week in London, British artist Rebecca Louise Law literally turned the flower industry on its head. She suspended 1,200 fresh flowers upside down over the West End’s St. Christopher’s Place. The pop-up display, which was designed to celebrate the arrival of warmer weather, immersed winter-weary shoppers in a colorful oasis as they drifted head first through the suspended garden. Continue reading

Ancient Flower Trapped In Amber Unveils New Species

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Photo: George O. Poinar, Jr.

They say time really does stand still; at least when it comes to fossils. And last week, scientists announced that two tropical flowers, possibly as old as 45 million years, have been found in two separate pieces of amber. The ancient flowers, which were discovered in a cave in the Dominican Republic, offer fascinating clues about the evolution of life on the planet. Considering our own brief time here on earth, the discovery certainly puts things into perspective. Continue reading