Dreamy Dahlias: 10 Ways To Identify Your Perfect Type

A cactus dahlia blooming in my garden

Fall may be poking a finger into my garden, but my dahlias are still flowering like it’s summer. Every morning I wake up to a multitude of new blooms. And no matter how many I harvest, the next day there are still more waiting to be cut. Who knew October could bring so many fresh flowers.

DAHLIAS BRING OUT THE CHILD

My first introduction to dahlias occurred in the 1960s when I was a kid growing up in Delaware. During that time, neighborhoods still commingled with working farms in an eclectic mix of pastures and suburban lawns. One such farm occupied a corner at the crossroads of two heavily-traveled streets. And in September, its fields transformed into a sea of dahlias.

And these weren’t your everyday dahlias, mind you. Many were the gigantic, dinner plate size; the kind that drives a kid mad with desire to jump out of the car just to be among them. Standing as tall as adults, they gently swayed in the breeze, tilting their giant heads in salute as we drove by.

Craning my neck out the window, I’d watch them until they gradually disappeared, dissolving one by one into a sea of rainbow colors.

Thus began my love affair with these beautiful flowers.

SO MANY DAHLIAS, SO LITTLE TIME

Native to the tropics, dahlias are classified as tender perennials. They may be annual or perennial, depending on the climate. They typically start blooming in August with other late-summer flowers and don’t quit until just before Thanksgiving.

Still, while they’re generally known for their towering stems and gigantic blooms, the plants nevertheless come in all shapes and sizes. These can range in height from the very tall (around 7 feet) to just under 12 inches. There are literally thousands of varieties to choose from.

FLOWERS AS BIG AS A FOOT

Still, it goes without saying that the most notable feature of all dahlias are the flowers. These can range in diameter from 2 inches to almost one foot. And among these, there are standard flower types, each with its own specifications. For example, there are species with single, double and semi-double petals. And there are unusual shapes like spherical or cactus. Still other varieties resemble flowers such as anemones, peonies and orchids.

waterlily dahlia 'Pam Hayden'

Waterlily dahlia ‘Pam Howden’

One thing they all have in common are their dazzling colors. Dahlias come in a seemingly infinite variety, including all shades of pink, red, scarlet, orange, purple and yellow. Moreover, the flower petals often come painted with strips or tips of another color. (There are also creamy ones as well as brilliant white species.) 

In sum, with so many options to choose from, how do you decide? One way is to familiarize yourself with the most common types. You may be surprised to find that some don’t look like the ‘typical’ dahlia. 

THE TEN MOST COMMON DAHLIA TYPES

Single-flowered dahlias feature a single row of flat or slightly cupped ray petals surrounding a central disc.

single-flowered dahlia

Single-flowered dahlia

Semi-double dahlias have two or more rows of petals surrounding a central disc.

semi-double dahlias

Semi-double dahlias

Mignon dahlias are similar to single dahlias except their petal florets are rounded and their disc flowers have no more than two rows.

mignon dahlia

Mignon dahlia with burgundy/black foliage

Anemone dahlias have an inner disc made up of tubular shaped florets and an outer ring of one or more rows of flat ray petals.

anemone dahlia 'Polka'

Anemone dahlia ‘Polka’

Orchid dahlias are open centered flowers with just one row of ray florets surrounding a disc. The petals are often overlapping and curled for most of their length.

orchid dahlia

Orchid dahlia

Collarette dahlias have one row of flat petals surrounding a disc as well as an inner wreath of shorter petals called the ‘collar’.

collarette dahlia

Collarette dahlia ‘Mary Eveline’ plum red petals with white ‘collar’

Ball and Pompon dahlias are ball-shaped and feature double flowers with rounded or blunt tipped florets. Pompons are slightly smaller than ball dahlias, which are known for their perfectly round flower heads.

pompom dahlias

Orange ball dahlias – notice the slightly flattened shape

pompom dahlia

The perfectly round pompon dahlia ‘Franz Kafka’

Decorative dahlias are doubles that feature flat, oval petals with tips on the end. Formal varieties have regular, evenly placed petals, while informal varieties tend to be arranged in a more haphazard way. Both varieties grow to over 40 inches.

decorative dahlia 'Lisa Dark Pink'

Decorative dahlia ‘Lisa Dark Pink’

Cactus and semi-cactus dahlias have narrow pointed petals that roll back on themselves, giving them a spiky look. Cactus types are rolled for their full length, while semi cactus types include a mix of flat and rolled petals. Both are considered double flowers and reach an average height of around 40 inches.

cactus dahlia

Orange cactus dahlia

semi-cactus dahlia 'Aloha'

Semi-cactus dahlia ‘Aloha’

There are many other varieties, including peony, waterlily and stellar, not to mention the celebrated ‘Dinner Plate’ which falls under numerous categories. The Miscellaneous Dahlias category alone includes hundreds of varieties.

Ready to add dahlias to your garden? Every year, among the ten top things I want to achieve or change in my garden, I resolve to plant more. Here’s how.

When to plant dahlias

Dahlias are sold as tubers and need to be planted after the ground has warmed up and there’s no danger of frost. I usually plant mine in the late spring just around the time my tulips have faded. Plant the tubers in well drained soil in full sun for best results. You can also pot them up indoors a couple weeks beforehand to give them a head start.

dahlia tubers

Dahlia tubers need to winter indoors in a cool, but not cold, space

Considered hardy outdoors in USDA zones 8 to 10, dahlias are considered tender in my neck of the woods (Zone 6.) Once they’re done flowering in the fall (or right after the first frost), I dig them up, label them and store them in a dry spot in the basement.

Want to learn more? Visit Longwood Gardens’ annual dahlia show, held each year in Kennett Square, Pennsylvania. Looking for a great place to buy tubers? Check out the beauties at Eden Brothers, one of my favorite online sources.

 

 

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