Spring-Flowering Bulbs: 10 Great Varieties

Spring bulbs in a formal garden setting

Yesterday I supervised the planting of two thousand spring-flowering bulbs. We laid them individually in patterns and dug them one-by-one into the earth. When we were finished, we dressed the bulbs with mulch and stepped back to admire our handiwork. You could almost feel the energy emanating from all those future flowers tucked so snugly underground.


In Maryland, it’s almost too late to be planting spring bulbs. But according to local plant expert Patrick Gravel, as long as you can get a shovel in the ground, you’ve got time. Haven’t purchased any bulbs? Not to worry. Even if your favorite on-line bulb supplier has sold out, chances are your local nursery can still yield some interesting results.

Last week, Gravel came up from Richmond to speak to my garden club about landscaping with bulbs. Below are some of the varieties he profiled. If you’re up for the job, many of them are still out there just waiting to be planted.


For me, the challenge of planting spring bulbs is the cold weather. Just when I’m turning my attention indoors, the bulbs need to go in the ground. This often requires an appetite for digging lots of holes outdoors when the temperature is hovering around 40°F (like yesterday.) Then again, if you can visualize what your garden will look like in the spring, the reward is directly proportional to the amount of energy you’re willing to expend.

Carpet of blue muscari and other spring bulbs (Keukenhof, Holland)


Also known as ornamental onions, spring-blooming alliums are drought tolerant and easy-to-grow. Moreover, they come in a wide variety of colors, shapes and sizes. If you’re looking for drama, choose tall varieties like the giant purple-flowering GlobemasterGladiator, and Purple Sensation, Or go for interesting shapes like the reddish-flowered, oval-shaped Drumstick, or the light purple, spidery-flowered Shubertii (Persian Onion). 

Giant purple allium


Small in stature with good primary coloring, anemones are the quintessential spring bulb. They bloom early to mid April and naturalize easily. The low-growing, daisy-like Anemone blanda, or Grecian Windflower, tops out at about 4″ and makes an ideal companion for tulips and daffodils. “A nice early groundcover if you’re waiting for something else to emerge,” said Gravel.

Anemone blanda


Gravel thinks of crocuses as ‘little surprises’. You need to plant them early, though, since they’re among the earliest spring bloomers. (Plant most varieties in mid October to mid November.) Look for Giant Dutch crocus, and the even earlier-blooming Snow crocus.

Autumn Crocus, which is not a true crocus, but a colchicum, bears purple-pink or white flowers in September or October and must be planted in August.

Dutch crocus


A member of the lily family, these spring bulbs have unusual, bell-shaped flowers. Crown Imperial grows to 3′ tall and has lily-like foliage (with a grassy head tuft), Snake’s Head grow to around 1′ tall and have checkered petals and the purple to black-flowered Black Persian grows to around 3′ tall.

Snake’s Head fritillaria


Gravel advises wearing gloves when handling hyacinths because the oil from these spring-flowering bulbs is an irritant. Highly fragrant, they naturalize quickly and are easy to force inside (more on that below.)

Sometimes, however, hyacinths can get floppy. Gravel recommends planting the bulbs deeper to give them more support or providing them with low caging to keep the blooms upright. Click here for Holland Bulb Farms’ selection.



Not the same as hyacinths, these woodland flowers have nodding, bell-shaped flowers in bluish-lavender flowers. They are commonly known as Spanish and English bluebells.

Spanish bluebells


Commonly known as Grape Hyacinth, these high-fragrant, tiny spring bulbs form rivers of brilliant blue to purple color under taller spring flowers like daffodils and tulips. Plant them underneath daffodils for a brilliant spring display.

Muscari, commonly known as Grape Hyacinth


Named for the Greek hunter who fell in love with his own beauty, narcissus come in a wide variety of sizes, shapes and forms. Some of the most common daffodils are the traditional, single-flowered Trumpet, the slightly smaller Large Cup, the flat-flowered Small Cup with distinctly colorful edges and the clustered/layered cupped Double.

The diminutive Jonquil bears long, rush-like leaves and scented yellow or white flowers. Tazettas (also known as Paperwhites) are bunch flowering, sweetly-fragrant, mid-sized daffodils, while narcissus Poeticus (also known as Pheasant’s Eye) have pure white flowers and small, red-rimmed cups. 

Double daffodils


“A very simple spring bulb, you can’t go wrong with these February-March bloomers and they naturalize easily,” said Gravel. Choose from Galanthus elsewii, Galanthus nivalis, and the taller Giant snowdrops, Leucojum aestivum.

“There are many, many different varieties of snowdrops out there with tiny, tiny differences, said Gravel. “It’s a really nerdy plant.”



According to Gardenia.net, there are over 3,000 registered varieties of this popular spring bloomer. Some of the most common are Darwin, Triumph, Double, Fringed, Parrot, Fosteriana and Greigii. The diminutive species tulips like Bakeri are long-lived and great for the front of the border. Gravel recommends using chicken wire to protect the bulbs from digging animals.

Fringed tulips


This is much easier than you think. Gravel says the easiest bulbs to force indoors are amaryllis and paperwhites. ‘All they really need is water,” he said. The rest of the spring-flowering bulbs require a 6- to 8-week cooling period that mimics their outdoor period of dormancy.

Plant bulbs in well draining potting soil and keep them in your refrigerator at a temperature ranging around 45 degrees F for 6 to 8 weeks. Keep the soil moist, but not soggy. After the cooling period, bring the bulbs out, place in a sunny location and enjoy.

Amaryllis bulb just beginning to sprout indoors

Patrick Gravel works at Sneed’s Nursery in Richmond, Virginia and lectures frequently on plants and plant life. He can be reached at pgravel87@gmail.com.

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