Topiary Gardens: 6 Great Ideas From The Gardens Of Eyrignac

You would almost believe you’d dropped into a fairy tale. France’s valley of the Dordogne boasts a bucolic green countryside that has long inspired painters, authors and poets. Home to the deep green Dordogne river, tiny rural villages and medieval castles perched high on hilltops, it is also the site of one of the most famous topiary gardens in France, the spectacular Gardens of Eyrignac.

ABOUT THE GARDENS OF EYRIGNAC

Nestled in the heart of the Périgord Noir, the Gardens of Eyrignac cover 24 acres on a hilltop amid miles of protected natural forest. Created in the 1700s, the French-style gardens have been in the hands of the same family for centuries. All in all, 22 generations have tended to their upkeep, helping to shape them into the year-round masterpiece they are today. 

Originally inspired by those of Italian villas, the first gardens were formal and symmetrical in style. In the 19th century, however, they were reworked to reflect an English-park style of landscaping. They retained their English style until the 1960s, when the family returned them to their original condition, painstakingly searching the grounds for traces of the former garden.

At the center of the property is a honey-colored stone manor house. Built on the ruins of a medieval castle, it is the site of the family’s ancient ‘noble seat.’ 

Climbing rose on the manor’s stone exterior.

A TOPIARY GARDEN AT THE TOP OF ITS GAME

Today, the gardens are made up almost entirely of topiary. Meticulously maintained, the green sculptures exhibit the highest forms of trimming and pruning. Dark green yews, bright green box, hornbeams and cypress shaped into walls, windows, arcades and tantalizing alleys divide the main areas of the garden. While within, smaller evergreen specimens shaped into knot-gardens, low hedging for flower beds and unusual animal forms add interest and warmth to the series of cool, green ‘rooms.’

Altogether, the topiary gardens of Erygnac feature over 80 different plant specimens and 300 plant sculptures. Their strict lines are preserved by a staff of six full-time gardeners, using only hand shears, plumb lines and stencils passed down from the 17th century.

Symmetrical, ball-shaped mulberry trees planted in lavender ‘pots.’

So, aside from appreciating its beauty, how can we learn from this spectacular garden? Below are five themes, I observed at Eyrignac that every home gardener can implement, no matter how large or small the scale.   

IDEA #1  USE POTS TO INTRODUCE NEW SPACES

Clipped hedges are key to topiary gardens where they provide a firm backdrop to all those geometric shapes and accessories. Among the many areas defined by hedges at Eyrignac is a round ‘room’ found at the end of the Avenue of Hornbeams (a part of the original French design from the 17th century).

Devoid of any ornament, save a large stone urn in the center, this small space nonetheless tantalizes with its restricted view of the interior. Located slightly forward of the hornbeam ‘walls,’ the pair of pots adds dimension, while indicating the entrance to the tiny garden. 

IDEA #2  USE POTS TO DEFINE SPACE

Large vases are the epitome of French garden style. At Eyrignac, the careful placement of pots and urns helps lead the eye around the gardens while establishing important axes. Below, the succession of identical pots at the Fish Pond visually extends the pool while pointing to the pyramidal trees beyond. 

Large-sized pots also serve as sculptures at Eyrignac. Below, Italian terracotta urns tucked into the alcoves of the Vase Avenue soften the strict succession of geometric shapes while pointing to the open meadow beyond.

Pots tucked into alcoves lead the eye down ‘Vase Avenue.’

On the other hand, using a combination of pots of different shapes, materials and sizes helps draw the eye, calling attention to small spaces in key areas of the garden. Below, a collection of clay pots at my friend’s Paris apartment. 

My friend’s apartment in Paris.

IDEA #3  REPEAT A THEME

At Eyrignac, the star motif appears frequently in stonework, sculptures, pots and even hedges. Repeating themes help knit the garden together. By choosing a motif and repeating it, you can achieve unity, too, while creating interest in the garden. The sky’s the limit. In my work, I’ve even seen motifs repeated on pool towels.

Cobblestones form a star underneath an old millstone.

Star-shaped topiary adds a touch of whimsy to the theme.

IDEA #4  USE RED TO DEFINE BOUNDARIES

Of all the colors on the spectrum, red commands the most attention. And used (sparingly) in a garden, it can have a grand impact. At the Eyrignac topiary gardens, you’ll find it on a painted pagoda at the far end of a long, tree-lined alley or splashed here and there on flowers in the garden.

But its greatest impact is in the White Garden. Here, the Japanese Torii gates, painted a beautiful red-orange, define the four axes of the large space. Not only do they help establish the boundaries, but they also add a touch of color to this monochromatic garden. 

Long view of the White Garden with red gates serving as anchors.

The Japanese Torri gate symbolizes the separation of the natural and spiritual worlds. 

IDEA #5 USE CLIMBING ROSES TO ADD DRAMA AND HEIGHT

True to French design, climbing roses are a common theme at the garden. On the 17th century manor house, the cream roses soften the look of the stone, while adding an important vertical element to the exterior. Climbing roses can be trained to climb up walls, arbors, trellises and even hedges. Try one of these repeat bloomers: New Dawn, Iceberg, Cecile Brunner or Royal Sunset for all-summer enjoyment.

Climbing roses soften the stone exterior of the 17th century manor house.

IDEA #6 MIX STRONG LINES WITH NATURALISTIC PLANTINGS

I’ve written about this previously. Naturalistic plantings look best when tamed by strong lines. And the reverse is also true. Strong shapes are softened, even enhanced with free-form embellishments. Below, the wild fleabane offers an unexpected counterpoint to the formal topiary above. 

For more information on gardens of Eyrignac, click here for the official website.

 

 

Why Carnations Are The Official Mother’s Day Flower

This is one of my favorite all-time stories. And even better, it’s true. It’s the tale of a mother and daughter, 500 white carnations and the founding of Mother’s Day.

IT ALL BEGAN IN WEST VIRGINIA

The story begins in 1905 with Anna Jarvis standing over the grave of her mother. She and her mother had shared a deep bond throughout Anna’s lifetime. Consumed by grief, Anna makes a solemn vow. She pledges to dedicate her life to establishing a national day to honor her mother and all mothers for the positive contributions they make to society.

Anna’s mother, Ann Reeves Jarvis, had sacrificed a lot for her children. Having raised her family during the Civil War era, she had suffered great hardship. Of the 11 children she gave birth to, only four survived. The others died from diseases common at the time, including measles, typhoid and diphtheria.

THE MOTHER’S DAY WORK CLUBS

In the late 1850’s, in the hopes of improving conditions to stave off such illnesses, Anna’ mother came up with an idea. She began organizing coalitions of mothers from small towns across West Virginia. The women raised money for medicines, inspected food and milk intended for children and provided helpers to families whose mothers were bedridden by illness. The coalitions became known as the Mother’s Day Work Clubs.

Ann Reeves Jarvis

Drawing no lines where it came to political affiliations, the mothers cared for people at all levels of society. During the Civil War, they insisted on remaining neutral. In their additional role as volunteer nurses, club members also cared for wounded soldiers of both the Confederate and Union armies, providing food and clothing to the men who were stationed in their area.

Mother’s Day Work Club members took care of all soldiers

Following the end of the war, the clubs continued to be a unifying force in a divided nation. In 1868, Jarvis organized Mothers’ Friendship Day, which was centered around picnics and other pacifist activities. The events brought together mothers of former foes and encouraged reconciliation among area families.

ANNA JARVIS AND 500 WHITE CARNATIONS

Shortly after her mother’s death, Anna organized a memorial to honor her. She held it at her mother’s church, St. Andrew’s Methodist Episcopal Church in Grafton, West Virginia. During the service, she passed out 500 white carnations (her mother’s favorite) to all the mothers in attendance. Similar events took place all over Philadelphia that afternoon, where Anna lived at the time.

With this unofficial inauguration of the Mothers’ Day movement, Anna began an intense letter writing campaign, reaching out to every national, state or local politician she could think of. By 1909, largely as a result of her efforts, 46 states and many foreign countries, including Canada and Mexico, had begun holding Mother’s Day celebrations. In 1912, Anna formed the Mother’s Day International Association to encourage further international recognition of the day.

Finally in 1914, President Woodrow Wilson made things official. He signed Proclamation 1268, which created a national Mother’s Day as A public expression of love and reverence for the mothers of our country.

Letter signed by President Woodrow Wilson establishing Mother’s Day

The second Sunday in May was set aside as the official day of celebration and the wearing of a white carnation, symbol of love and good luck, became a tradition.

THE CONTROVERSY OVER PRINTED CARDS

Anna Jarvis’ original vision was for Mother’s Day to be a personal celebration between mothers and their families (*this is why Mother’s takes the singular possessive and not the plural). She imagined it as a time when millions would visit their mothers and pen personal, hand written notes expressing their love and affection.

Vintage Mother’s Day card

With the official recognition of the holiday, though, florists, card companies and other merchants began jumping on the bandwagon. Jarvis became more and more incensed as she watched Mother’s Day drift further and further away from her original idea. And, nothing upset her more than the growth in popularity of the printed Mother’s Day card. She wrote,

A printed card means nothing except that you are too lazy to write to the woman who has done more for you than anyone in the world. 

By 1920, Jarvis had become so upset over the commercialization of Mother’s Day that she launched a campaign to abolish the holiday. Declaring Mother’s Day a failure, she organized boycotts and threatened lawsuits to stop what she saw as an attempt by others to profit off of the day.

In 1923, she filed suit against the then Governor of New York, Al Smith, over a Mother’s Day celebration. When the court rejected her plea, she formed a protest and was arrested for disturbing the peace. She devoted the remainder of her life to fighting against the very day she had established.

Jarvis died, childless, in 1948 at the age of 84. She was buried next to her mother in Philadelphia.

THE ROLE OF CARNATIONS

One hundred years later, Jarvis’ legacy lives on in our annual Mother’s Day holiday where carnations have become the official flower.  In Jarvis’ day the carnations were white, but since then pink and red carnations have become equally popular. According to FTD’s Mother’s Day Flower Guide, pink carnations represent love and gratitude while red carnations signify admiration. Nowadays, white carnations are reserved for honoring a mother who is no longer living.

Red carnations signify admiration

Despite Jarvis’ later efforts, every U.S. president since 1914 has issued an official Presidential Mother’s Day Proclamation recognizing and honoring America’s mothers. And today, the custom is celebrated all over the world (albeit on different days.)

On a personal note, I like receiving printed cards and flowers on Mother’s Day, but have to agree with Jarvis that nothing beats a hand-written note from your child. I’m lucky enough to receive such letters each and every year.

Wishing all of you a very happy Mother’s Day!

 

Nature’s Flu Remedy: Antiviral Anti-inflammatory Lemon

Now that flu season has begun, most of us are looking for ways to stay healthy. For some, this means getting the flu shot, for others it means restocking their arsenal of home remedies. For many, it means a combination of both. However, sometimes it doesn’t take more than opening your refrigerator to uncover one of the best flu fighters of all. That’s the humble lemon. Continue reading

Fall Is Back: It’s Time To Get Out And Smell The Leaves

Fall arrives slowly here in Maryland. Just when you think the temperatures have cooled, they shoot up again along with the State’s oppressive humidity. Finally, though, there comes a morning when the air has turned crisp and the colors more vivid. That’s when I throw on a jacket and go outdoors to smell the leaves. Continue reading

Father’s Day 2018: Five Lessons Dad Taught Me About Life In the Garden

Me, my dad and my sister circa 1965

Dad was always up early when I was a child. On weekdays he went to the office, but on weekends the real work began. These were the days that dad devoted to yard work. My sister and I were a fundamental part of his crew.

Dad ran a tight ship and an orderly landscape was testament to our mighty team effort. As garden ‘personnel’, my sister and I raked, clipped, pulled weeds and hauled yard waste on a seasonal basis. We weren’t fans of the work, but we were big fans of dad’s, and the shared chores were a good way to spend outdoor time together.

It wasn’t until much later in life that we realized something more than gardening had been going on in the yard. While my sister and I toiled in the dirt, dad had been teaching us some valuable life lessons. Here are five things I learned from my dad in the garden that continue to infuse my life with purpose and meaning today.

Delay gratification

Until the work was done, there would be no rides to the pool, quick trips to Dunkin’ Donuts or play dates with friends. This was a hard lesson to learn since by Saturday morning most of our buddies were already hard at play. My sister and I gradually discovered, though, that delaying our playtime actually increased our enjoyment of it later. In finishing our yard chores first, we developed patience and strengthened our willpower. Over time, we grew to relish the psychic benefits of putting off fun until our tasks were accomplished.

Do quality work

One of my jobs was to crawl around the periphery of the house with garden shears to trim the stray grass left behind by the mower. About halfway around the exterior, I usually got tired and started cutting corners. My dad always noticed those areas where I had slacked off and though he never yelled, he seemed so disappointed. Many times I tearfully returned to the job. During the process, though, I gradually learned to do quality work and discovered that practicing quality was fulfilling and that it mattered to me.

Practice integrity

If you told dad you were going to do something, you did it. He expected no less. No excuses, prevarication or blaming poor work on your sister were valid substitutes for your word. Honesty was the rule and dad led by example, setting high standards in the yard. Dad taught us how to be respectful of each other and listened patiently to our endless strategies for reducing our workload. He also showed us that the key to good work was to finish the jobs that we started.

Push yourself

Dad had a riding lawn mower, but insisted on walking behind it to cut our 3-acre field. On the hottest of days, my mother would watch him incredulously from the kitchen window. My dad pushed himself to burn calories and probably to spend more time outdoors. Whatever the reason, his work ethic made it hard to refuse when he asked us to bag all the clippings.

Of course dad could have bagged the grass as he mowed, but that would have meant we missed out on the exercise. One year, as incentive, dad offered to pay us if we got all the clippings into 10 bags. We worked like demons all afternoon, devising efficient strategies for raking and fitting the most clippings in each black plastic sack. My sister was stamping on the tenth when it burst at the seams, but dad paid us anyway. We returned sweaty and tired to the house, and though dad disputes this version of the story, it’s still one of my favorite yard memories today.

Try not to complain

Dad showed us through example that even if the job got hard, or the weather uncomfortable, we should strive not to complain. Not only was it annoying, it made yard work unpleasant for everyone. He taught that seeing things in a more positive light was much better for all of us and improved our relationships.

Being young girls, my sister and I struggled the most with this concept. We tried hard to stop airing our yard work grievances, with incremental improvement over time as we aged. But, I’ll admit that it wasn’t until later on in life that I finally learned the true value of this lesson.

Thank you, dad, for all the lessons you taught us.  Happy Father’s Day. You are the best dad, ever.

 

Gardening For The Soul: Ten Steps To A Happy Life

View from atop the Bavarian Alps

Spring is a good time to start fresh and focus on what’s really important in life. For me, the month of April is a time of introspection. I make a mental list of what parts of my life need to be reorganized, adjusted or just plain thrown out.  Then I replenish my house with a happy mind. Continue reading

Valentines Day 2018: How To Really Say It With Flowers

This winter, I’ve been passing the time rereading a few French classics. It’s been a great way to while away the hours, especially since many of the books focus on life in the garden. Such is the case with Honoré de Balzac’s 1835 novel, Le Lys dans la Vallée (The Lily of the Valley). It’s a great story of French love and society and how a pair of frustrated lovers establish a secret correspondence by flowers. Continue reading

Falling For Wilson Bentley, The Original Snowflake Man

Photos of snowflakes by Wilson Bentley

Wilson Bentley Digital Archives of the Jericho Historical Society/snowflakebentley.com   

‘No two snowflakes are alike’ is a saying that many of us have grown up hearing. But few of us are aware of the man who coined it, a farmer from a small rural town in Vermont by the name of Wilson A. Bentley (1865-1931). Bentley was the first person to photograph a single snowflake, thus opening a window into this astonishing world of unique crystalline sculptures. Continue reading

All’s Fair At Macy’s 44th Annual Spring Flower Show

Revolving carousel at Macy’s Spring Flower Show

New York City’s Macy’s Day Parade is an American fall tradition with its festive floats, high school marching bands and trademark balloons. But until this weekend, I had never heard of another spectacular show sponsored each spring by the 100-year-old department store. That is, the Macy’s Flower Show; a show so big that it transforms an entire floor of the giant Herald Square building into a veritable garden extravaganza. Continue reading

Out and About In Cool and Captivating Lima, Peru

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Lima is perhaps best known as a stopover on the way to more exotic destinations like Cuzco and Machu Picchu. But, recently I found myself staying for an extended period of time in the sprawling coastal city. So instead of sticking to the typical tourist plan, I decided to truly explore some of the city’s more remarkable districts. What I discovered was a dynamic tapestry of people, architecture, customs and cuisine; an intoxicating blend that makes visiting this capital city something really special.

By all standards, Lima is a very large city. Covering approximately 310 square miles, it is home to over 10 million people, or roughly one-third of the country’s entire population. The city perches high atop gargantuan green cliffs at the base of which runs a road known as the Costa Verde. Miles of two-story homes interspersed with modern mid-rise buildings, boisterous local markets and quaint city parks fan out along the coastline. Overhead, paragliders loop through the air on the strong ocean breeze, occasionally drifting perilously close to the hotels that dot the busy shore.

Lima 5

One wonders how the city stays put atop the steep cliffs, which appear to be formed mostly of sand and in many places are secured only by netting. Lapping at their feet are long lines of horizontal waves, which break on the rocky shore and retreat with a noisy rumble, sweeping mounds of smooth, shiny pebbles back out to sea. Near the popular Rosa Nautica restaurant and pier, surfers ride the waves from sun-up to sundown, prudently abandoning their boards just moments before they collide with the rocky beach.

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Currently billed as the third largest city in Latin America, Lima was founded in 1535 by the Spanish Conquistador Francisco Pizarro, who laid out the original boundaries for what he envisioned to become a “City of Kings.” At the time, there were roughly 200,000 indigenous people in the area. The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. The Spanish ruled Peru for over 300 years, renaming the region the Viceroyalty of Peru.

In addition to suffering under occupation for centuries, Lima has endured many earthquakes (earthquake warning signs abound) and following liberation, bouts of guerrilla warfare as recently as the 1980s. A stroll through just a tiny fraction of the city’s many neighborhoods is a trip through history itself as one area morphs into another yielding up contrasting architecture and cultures characteristic of each of Lima’s distinct time periods. Worn stone sidewalks, polished smooth by centuries of use, crisscross the city, affording a constantly changing vista.

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Officially, the province of Lima is divided into 43 districts. The various coastal districts, though, are generally frequented most by tourists and their population increases with summer months. Here are some suggestions for what to see and do in some of these more popular areas.

Central Lima

As its name suggests, Central Lima is the heart of the historical Lima city. And the main plaza, called Plaza Mayor, is the core of the the 16th century city established by Pizarro. At the north end of the plaza sits the massive Palacio de Gobierno, first erected in 1535 by Pizarro and today the official residence of the President of Peru. The grandiose baroque style building has undergone many transformations over the years and now occupies an entire city block.

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To the east of the Plaza is the Archbishops Palace, a Baroque-style stone edifice with ornate cedar balconies. It is joined to the Cathedral of Lima, which houses Pizarro’s remains.

lima pizarro tomb

A short walk away is the beautiful Plaza San Martin, named for José de San Martin, an Argentinian general who led South America’s successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire. Known as the ‘Liberator of Peru,’ he is depicted sitting astride a horse in the center of the park. Underneath, is a bronze rendering of Madre Patria, the symbolic mother of Peru.

lima statue

Also located on the square is the magnificent Gran Hotel Bolivar, built in 1924 and at the time considered one of the most luxurious accommodations in Latin America. In the 1940s and 1950s, the hotel was a favorite among many movie stars, including Clark Gable, Orson Welles and John Wayne. Edward II, Robert Kennedy and Richard Nixon were also guests. The Gran Hotel Bolivar is known as the place that catapulted the local cocktail, the Pisco Sour, into the international spotlight.

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Now considered the national drink of both Peru and Chile, the Pisco Sour was allegedly invented by an American bartender in the 1920s.  It is composed of pisco, a high-proof spirit made from distilled grape wine, as well as sour citrus juice and other sweetener components. In Peru, bartenders usually add key lime juice, syrup, egg white, ice and Angostura bitters to the mix.

Peruvians love to offer Pisco Sours to guests and we drank them pretty much everywhere we went.

 

 

Mireflores

Miraflores was established by the Spanish in the 16th century and was later the scene of the Battle of Miraflores in the late 1800s (during the War of the Pacific) when it was sacked and burned by Chilean invaders. Today, it is where most of the luxury hotels and apartment buildings are based. Upscale shopping locations include the multi-tiered mall called Larcomar and its cliff-side bars and restaurants. Behind the high-rise hotels, we discovered quiet, tree lined streets and stopped to peek through the gates at the many beautiful stone mansions, their graceful architecture just visible above high walls draped with crimson bougainvillea and other colorful flowers.

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Huaca Pucllana, an important historical site and one of the last remaining pre-Inca ruins in the city, is located in the heart of Miraflores. The word Huaca means tomb, and the site is exactly that; a multi-tiered ceremonial center composed of mounds of hand-formed adobe bricks. Restored portions of the tomb blend seamlessly with the original structure first created by the Limas people back in AD 400. A stunning open-air restaurant of the same name faces onto the ruins, which are beautifully illuminated at night.

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Another Miraflores attraction, Lovers Park (Parque del Amor) is located on the the top of the cliffs. Its focal point is a clay statue entitled “The Kiss” (El Beso), which is surrounded by curving walls of colorful mosaics.

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San Isidro

San Isidro is an upscale district of the city that in recent years has become a major financial quarter. For tourists, the principal attraction is the Museo Larco, a former 18th century Viceroy’s house which has been converted into a museum housing an outstanding display of pre-Columbian Art. Founded by Rafael Larco Hole in 1926, the museum’s chronological galleries showcase over 4,000 years of Peruvian pottery. They also house the largest collection of jewelry used by many notable rulers of pre-Columbian Peru including crowns, earrings, and other ornaments finely wrought in gold and decorated with semi-precious stones. A separate gallery features a large collection of pre-Columbian erotic pots.

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One of the best cafes in the city, the Cafe de Museo, serves fresh Peruvian food on a cool porch amid trailing ferns and cascading bougainvillea.

Lima garden

 

Also located in San Isidro is one of the hottest restaurants in Lima, Malabar. When our car pulled up, a hostess opened a large door in an otherwise nondescript wall to usher us in to a sleek and glamorous space. Malabar is run by culinary star Pedro Mighel Schiaffini who concocts unusual blends of Peruvian food, using local Amazonian produce that changes daily. We sampled many dishes that introduced entirely new tastes to our palates, including wild-caught fish, weird roots, unfamiliar mollusks and sauces made from exotic fruits. The dinner was complemented by a round of specialty cocktails (created by Schiaffini’s dad) served in vintage glasses.

Barranco

At the turn of the the 20th century, Barranco was known as an upper class resort community lined with old mansions. Today it is a boisterous area with brightly-painted houses, unusual tropical plants and acres of colorful flowers, including large beds of fragrant roses.

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A block west of the main plaza is the Puente de los Suspiros (Bridge of Sighs), a narrow wooden bridge that traverses an old stone stairway. We crossed the bridge and took the stairway down to the beach shoulder-to-shoulder with the local weekend crowds sporting umbrellas and towels and an infectious happy mood. Along the way we passed crowded eateries, the smoky smell of pork chorizos rising up into the later afternoon air. Sidewalk vendors sold spiral cone ice cream, frozen fruit popsicles and tiny baked treats from little pop-up stands erected along the steps.

One night we dined at the trendy outdoor restaurant, Amor Amar whose tagline reads roughly “There is no better love than the love of food.” Discretely located on a sidestreet in Barranco, the understated courtyard space features full scale trees, ivy-cloaked walls and hundreds of twinkling lights. The menu is heavy on seafood, including charela, a sea bass from the north of Peru. We also sampled delicious Peruvian dishes made with local duck, slow roasted lamb and suckling goat. The house-made ice creams and delicious desserts made of local, fresh ingredients were a perfect end to a fabulous meal.

Getting Around

We were warned in advance to be careful about taxis, many of which are not taxis at all, but scammers who will literally take you for a ride. The few instances we resorted to cabs, we made sure to negotiate a price up front. For most all of our travel, we used Uber, which provided us with a quick and easy way to get around all parts of the city.

Weather

The temperature in Lima fluctuates little from summer to winter. Expect low 60s to upper 70s December-March and low 60s to upper 60s/low 70s July-September. In January, we enjoyed days ranging around 75 degrees. Although mornings often start with a grayish cloud cover, by early afternoon it is almost always sunny. It rarely rains in Lima.

There is a stiff breeze along the coast, which can feel chilly in the mornings and evenings. In the city proper, however, the sun is strong and there is little breeze. Best to come prepared with a hat and lots of sunscreen.

For further information on Lima, what to see and do, go to peru.travel.